River and Lake Conservation by afforestation schemes

a writing by Manoharan Thomas

Now a days the environmental issues have become more complex. The need of the hour is to restore ecological balance in order not to grieve ecocide. I have designed a plan to reestablish environment with concern on biodiversity.
Because of the scientific and technological development there arose the threat to biodiversity. The oxygen level in the atmosphere has declined. One of the reasons is deforestation consequent on sand mining
Importance of Forest
Forest produce vital oxygen and provide homes for wildlife. By volume, dry air contains 20.95% oxygen. Forests play a critical role in mitigating climate change because they act as a carbon sink—soaking up carbon dioxide that would otherwise be free in the atmosphere and contribute to ongoing changes in climate patterns. Trees also play a critical role in absorbing the greenhouse gases that augment global warming. But forests in India are under threat from deforestation, jeopardizing these benefits. Fewer forests means larger amounts of greenhouse gases entering the atmosphere—and increased speed and severity of global warming.
Deforestation and Sand Mining
Deforestation comes in many forms, including fires, clear-cutting for agriculture, ranching and development, unsustainable logging for timber, and degradation due to climate change. This impacts people’s livelihoods and threatens a wide range of plant and animal species.
Sand mining is a direct cause of erosion, and impacts the local wildlife. Various animals depend on sandy beaches for nesting clutches, and mining has led to the near extinction of gharials (a species of crocodile) in India. Disturbance of underwater and coastal sand causes turbidity in the water, which is harmful for organisms like coral that need sunlight. It can also destroy fisheries, financially harming their operators.
Excessive in-stream sand-and-gravel mining causes the degradation of rivers. ... Depletion of sand in the streambed and along coastal areas causes the deepening of rivers and estuaries, and the enlargement of river mouths and coastal inlets. It may also lead to saline-water intrusion from the nearby sea.
Afforestation in River Beds and Reservoir
Suggestion put forward to stop sand mining and afforestation and reforestation.
1. The government should pass order not to sand-mine from river beds, lakes and ponds and implement the order meaningfully.
2. The sand in rivers and reservoirs shall be heaped up in the middle to form a big mound. One might think that the capacity for holding water would shrink. But it is not so. Actually the capacity would be higher than the former status.
3. The mound shall be divided into three parts as lower, middle and top. Each division shall be levelled flat.
4. If the sand has less compressive strength, rocks and boulder could be inserted.
5. At the lower division, closer to water source grass, herbs and other small plants of the particular area shall be planted to invite birds of graminivorous. Besides those plants, bushy plants shall be planted. Along with those plants, cereals shall be sown, to invite granivorous. Flowering plants shall also find a place here to invite beetles, moths, butterflies, bees etc.
6. Introduce insects like grasshoppers and crickets to invite insectivorous birds.
7. At the second division shrubs shall be planted. These plants would invite small birds.
8. At the top division, trees of different kinds, including fruit bearing trees shall be planted. This arrangement shall invite bigger birds.
9. Animals, reptiles, earthworm and other creatures belonging to the particular area shall be introduced.
10. Flightless birds shall also be introduced.
11. The thick canopy would invite birds of different kinds and species.
12. Many birds need hole or niche in trees. It would be good, if bird shelters are provided in varied sizes, according to the requirements of different birds. This arrangement would help more number of birds to breed
13. Providing rockeries shall help flightless birds to breed.
14. Trellis shall help those birds which build nests using twigs and straw.
15. Introduction of fish in water around shall invite marsh birds.
16. A heavy bore-well shall be sunk to retain water level in the pond during summer.
17. Hunting in this area shall be strictly forbidden.
18. Area around the forest with considerable radius shall be declared as prohibited zone.
19. By this afforestation method a biodiversity conservatorium could be formed.
Financial Assistance from CSR
Companies and business organizations may be advised to take care of a particular scheme and maintain afforestation from their Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Funds.
This project if implemented would help to restore greenery to some extent. Greenery would help to replenish oxygen level.

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